Linked by Thom Holwerda on Sun 18th Jan 2009 11:16 UTC, submitted by anonymous
General Unix Protothreads are a type of extremely lightweight threads - each protothread requires only two bytes of memory - that are usually used for embedded firmware programming, where memory is at a premium. Protothreads combine the low overhead with event-driven programming with the algorithmic clarity of threaded programming.
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RE: Drawbacks?
by ValiantSoul on Sun 18th Jan 2009 15:36 UTC in reply to "Drawbacks?"
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These are application level (user-space) threads, as opposed to kernel level threads, so yes there are disadvantages.

Using your own scheduler means ALL of your threads are at the mercy of the kernel scheduler as if they were only 1 thread. This means that if the scheduler worked by evenly dividing time without priorities, and if it didn't context switch on I/O, and you had 4 threads with 8 kernel threads (1 of which being yours), your application would get 1/8 (12.5%) of the CPU time. With kernel level threads you would have 5/12 (41.6%) of the CPU. Of course the kernel scheduler doesn't actually work that way though...

That supposed 400x performance increase that is referenced on the WIKI is most likely something that wouldn't be processor intensive, it was probably just spawning off a bunch of threads. Spawning kernel threads can be expensive (especially if your goal is just to spawn a bunch of them and not really do anything else)

Other disadvantage is they can't use multiple cores/processors -- you are stuck with just the one you started on.

Now, in an embedded system these may not be a big issue. For performance, you probably don't have many other threads running, and yours should get the priority if setup properly. And unless you are using some sort of embedded cell, you probably only have 1 processor 1 core. If you do have 2 cores though, this could work well if your thread is running on a different core than the rest of your threads.

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