Linked by Thom Holwerda on Mon 3rd Sep 2012 20:46 UTC, submitted by MOS6510
General Development I like this one: "By definition, a program is an entity that is run by the computer. It talks directly to the CPU and the OS. Code that does not talk directly to the CPU and the OS, but is instead run by some other program that does talk directly to the CPU and the OS, is not a program; it's a script." Here's the other eleven.
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RE: Scripts
by butters on Tue 4th Sep 2012 01:41 UTC in reply to "Scripts"
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There are significant downsides to treating the hardware instruction set as a stable programming interface. Logic processors have been stuck on the Von Neumann architecture since the dawn of time because we use static optimizing compilers to target a particular hardware instruction set, and in the case of x86, it's not even a particularly convenient instruction set to implement in hardware.

Contrast this with the evolution of graphics processors, which support high-level programming interfaces via runtime interpreters plugged into the kernel device driver system which target unstable hardware architectures.

Over time, the hardware interface moved up the stack as certain operations, such as vertex shading, were factored out of the drivers and implemented in hardware. The programming model didn't change much, but the hardware changed radically.

Modern graphics processors understand compound data types like pixels, vertices, polygons, textures, and frames. Modern processors are remarkably good at integer arithmetic and boolean logic, but they don't understand the generalized sorted mapping type which dominates the architecture of most software systems.

Everything from C and UNIX filesystems to Ruby and Cassandra are based on sorted maps. At some point in the development or runtime process, each reference is translated into a key on a sorted map, which is then translated into an address in a flat linear array.

If not for statically compiled native machine code, the hardware would have evolved closer to the structured programming models that have prevailed since ALGOL, and modern processors would implement an instruction set closer to lua than x86.

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