Linked by Christopher W. Cowell-Shah on Thu 8th Jan 2004 19:33 UTC
General Development This article discusses a small-scale benchmark test run on nine modern computer languages or variants: Java 1.3.1, Java 1.4.2, C compiled with gcc 3.3.1, Python 2.3.2, Python compiled with Psyco 1.1.1, and the four languages supported by Microsoft's Visual Studio .NET 2003 development environment: Visual Basic, Visual C#, Visual C++, and Visual J#. The benchmark tests arithmetic and trigonometric functions using a variety of data types, and also tests simple file I/O. All tests took place on a Pentium 4-based computer running Windows XP. Update: Delphi version of the benchmark here.
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by Rayiner Hashem on Thu 8th Jan 2004 23:12 UTC

With more and more processors getting vector units, a language which allows such units to be used effectively really is in order.
APL anyone?

In addition to the advantages of Fortran you mentioned, I was also thinking about a full numeric tower like some languages have. Standard machine integers and floats are nice for a lot of scientific computing (and accounting, as I'm told), but for some computations, you need things like infinite precision rationals, arbitrary precision integers, etc.