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A bunch of file transfere tests (samba, nfs and ftp) timed with a stopwatch. Some Apache benchmarking tool that I can't remember. Some SQL queries that we used a lot, run on a copy of actual data from our database. There may have been something else.
If I recall correctly, gentoo won one of the benchmarks first time around, but that turned out to be simply because it had a newer version of some program than Red Hat. Once I installed the same version on Red Hat the difference disappeared.