Linked by Thom Holwerda on Mon 20th Feb 2012 22:53 UTC
Hardware, Embedded Systems "A group of researchers has fabricated a single-atom transistor by introducing one phosphorous atom into a silicon lattice. Through the use of a scanning tunnelling microscope and hydrogen-resist lithography, Martin Fuechsle et al. placed the phosphorous atom precisely between very thin silicon leads, allowing them to measure its electrical behavior. The results show clearly that we can read both the quantum transitions within the phosphorous atom and its transistor behavior. No smaller solid-state devices are possible, so systems of this type reveal the limit of Moore's law - the prediction about the miniaturization of technology - while pointing toward solid-state quantum computing devices."
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RE[2]: Sub-atomic?
by AnyoneEB on Tue 21st Feb 2012 00:27 UTC in reply to "RE: Sub-atomic?"
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Except all of our currently used public key cryptography algorithms can be broken by a quantum computer. See . It turns out that NP-complete problems seem to be only hard in the worst case and easy in the average case, so no one knows how to use them for cryptography. Grover's algorithm does allow for faster solutions to NP-complete problems, but they remain exponential.

With a sufficiently powerful quantum computer, Shor's algorithm defeats RSA in polynomial time and a generalization of it can solve the discrete logarithm problem (DSA, Diffie–Hellman, ElGamal) in polynomial time.

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